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Create and Manage Resource Quotas

Let's see how we can create and manage Resource Quotas.

Step 1: Create a Namespace

Let's create a namespace first:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Namespace
  name: dev
    name: dev

Apply the manifest to create the dev namespace:

kubectl apply -f dev-namespace.yml

Verify the namespace:

kubectl get ns

Step 2: Create a Resource Quota

Let's create a Resource Quota for the dev namespace:

apiVersion: v1
kind: ResourceQuota
  name: dev-resource-quota
  namespace: dev
    requests.cpu: "4" # equivalent to "4000m"
    limits.cpu: "8" # equivalent to "8000m"
    requests.memory: 10Gi
    limits.memory: 20Gi
    pods: "2"

The following resource types can be specified in the .spec.hard field:

Resource Name
limits.cpu Across all pods in a non-terminal state, the sum of CPU limits cannot exceed this value.
limits.memory Across all pods in a non-terminal state, the sum of memory limits cannot exceed this value.
requests.cpu Across all pods in a non-terminal state, the sum of CPU requests cannot exceed this value
requests.memory Across all pods in a non-terminal state, the sum of memory requests cannot exceed this value.
pods The total number of pods in a non-terminal state that can exist in the namespace. A pod is in a terminal state if .status.phase in (Failed, Succeeded) is true.

Apply the manifest to create the Resource Quota:

kubectl apply -f dev-resource-quota.yml

Step 3: Verify the Resource Quota

List the Resource Quotas:

kubectl get quota -n dev

Describe the quota:

kubectl describe quota dev-resource-quota -n dev

When you view the quota details, you will find the specific hard limit set for each resource, as well as the current usage of those resources.

Step 4: Create Pods and Test the Quota

In our example, we can't have more than 2 pods running in the dev namepsace and aggregate requests.cpu across all pods in the dev namespace can't exceed 8. The same is the case for other constraints specified in the resource quota.

Let's create a deployment and test this out:

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
  name: my-deployment
  namespace: dev
  replicas: 3
      app: nginx
        app: nginx
      - name: nginx
        image: nginx
            cpu: "110m"
            memory: "128Mi"
            cpu: "510m"
            memory: "600Mi"


For every pod in the namespace, each container must have a memory request, memory limit, CPU request, and CPU limit if there is a Resource Quota object in the namespace that puts a limit on the CPU and memory. This is because kubernetes needs to know whether the pod should be allowed to be scheduled based on the resources the pod requests.

Apply the manifest to create the deployment:

kubectl apply -f my-deployment

Step 5: Verify Deployment and Pods

# List deployments
kubectl get deployments -n dev

# List pods
kubectl get pods -n dev

You'll notice that only 2 Ppds are created. This is because the resource quota in the dev namespace restricts the maximum number of pods that can be created to 2.

You can verify the same by checking the events in the replicaset object as follows:

# List replicasets in dev namespace
kubectl get rs -n dev

# Describe the replicaset to view the events
kubectl describe rs <replicaset-name> -n dev

You'll observe an event similar to one below:

Error creating: pods "my-deployment-5c74fcc755-f4hct" is forbidden: exceeded quota: dev-resource-quota, requested: pods=1, used: pods=2, limited: pods=2

Clean Up

Assuming your folder structure looks like the one below:

|-- manifests
│   |-- my-deployment.yml
│   |-- dev-namespace.yml
│   |-- dev-resource-quota.yml

Let's delete all the resources we created:

kubectl delete -f manifests/